Method and Material: A cross-sectional study was carried out using the self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Vitamins and minerals, dietary supplements and herbal products were the three most popular types. A proper balance of the advantages and disadvantages in the information received from the media and from peers is recommended. Lastly, awareness on the part of health professionals of reports of adverse events attributable to complementary and alternative medicine is also necessary for effective two-way communication. It is common to see people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus trying to relieve stress or pain by using complementary and alternative medicine CAM. The fact that HIV cannot be cured [ 1 ] causes many of them try both conventional medicine and complementary and alternative therapies to improve their quality of life and longevity [ 2 ]. This rate is around three times higher than the rate of utilization of CAM among uninfected people [ 3 – 8 ]. In ,
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While significant progress has been made towards the first two targets, stigma against women living with HIV WLHIV , particularly in the context of their desire to have and raise children, remains an issue. We asked women about their HIV diagnosis, thoughts about pregnancy, desires to have children, and perceived stigma. KIs were asked about their perceptions of stigma towards WLHIV and policies or recommended actions to reduce discrimination towards this population.
While the WLHIV reported that their healthcare providers had generally been supportive of them having children, internalised stigma and the perceived risk of or actual discrimination by community members negatively impacted fertility desire and peripartum experiences among the study participants. KIs confirmed similar sources of discrimination, emphasising more internalised and community-based stigma rather than from healthcare providers.
Both groups highlighted the importance of increasing community education and awareness about HIV to reduce stigma.
An Integrated Approach to HIV Disclosure for HIV-Affected Families in Thailand.
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In and , the Thailand Ministry of Public Health — U.S. surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and risk.
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Association of Nevirapine Levels with Rash or Hepatotoxicity Among HIV-Infected Thai Women
We performed a nested case-control study of Thai women prescribed nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy ART to determine if development of rash or hepatotoxicity during the first 24 weeks of treatment is associated with plasma nevirapine concentrations. Controls were the next enrolled woman who was confirmed not to meet the case definition during the first 24 weeks. Nevirapine concentrations after the two week lead-in dose of mg once daily were compared between cases and controls by Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.
We cannot conclude definitively that nevirapine concentrations at two weeks of therapy are associated with rash or hepatotoxicity. It is unlikely that therapeutic drug monitoring at that time will improve identification of patients at risk for rash or hepatotoxicity. One possible explanation is that Thai patients may have higher plasma concentrations of nevirapine than North American or European patients when treated with the same dosage.
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Cardiovascular diseases CVD are becoming more prevalent in HIV-infected populations as they age largely due to improved treatment outcomes. We provided an overview of the prevalence and incidence of CVD and its risk factors in adult HIV-positive populations, and of the strategies currently in place for CVD management in the Asian region. Studies from the Asian region showed that CVD and CVD risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, elevated blood glucose, obesity and smoking, are highly prevalent in HIV-positive populations.
National HIV treatment guidelines provide some directions regarding CVD risk prevention and management in the HIV-infected population, however, they are limited in number and scope. To inform guidelines, policies and practice in the Asian region, research should focus on exploring appropriate CVD risk screening strategies and estimating current and future CVD mortality and morbidity rates.
Due to largely improved antiretroviral therapy ART outcomes, HIV positive individuals are growing older and as a result chronic diseases associated with aging, including cardiovascular diseases CVD and cancer, are becoming more prevalent in the HIV-infected population [ 1 ]. A recent review of data from high income countries estimated that HIV populations have around a twofold increased risk of experiencing CVD events compared to the general population [ 2 ].
Similar to risk factors in the general population, CVD in the HIV-infected population can be caused by non-modifiable risk factors including older age and family history of CVD, and modifiable risk factors such as medical conditions e. Furthermore, the increased risk of CVD might also be attributable to risk factors specific to the HIV-positive population, such as compromised immunity [ 3 , 4 ], immune activation, HIV associated inflammation [ 5 ], and receiving ART [ 6 , 7 ].
This review aims to provide insight on the prevalence and incidence of CVD and its risk factors in adult HIV populations in the Asian region. We defined CVD as stroke, myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease CHD and we considered blood lipid levels, diabetes and blood glucose levels, abdominal obesity, hypertension and smoking as CVD risk factors. We conclude with future directions for practice and research. Few studies have evaluated cardiovascular health in HIV-positive populations in the Asian region.
Table 1 provides an overview of studies evaluating CVD events and surrogate markers of cardiovascular dysfunction.
HCV-HIV Co-infected Patient Cohort in Thailand
HIV prevalence among this group skyrocketed from virtually nil to 40 percent in a single year when it was first identified in Without such an investment, the number of new infections in would be 17, 8 — approximately the number of new infections reported in The UNDP reported in that one-quarter of all new infections occurred among injecting drug users. An estimated 3 million people 5 percent of the population use drugs in Thailand.
While the majority of drug users take methamphetamines, an estimated , to , use heroin, 80 percent of whom inject. Studies suggest that one unintended consequence of this war on drugs may have been increased injection of sedatives particularly midazolam among heroin injectors.
The many differences in host and viral factors between HIV-infected Thai and last known HIV-negative and first known HIV-positive,11 The date in which.
Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. Chronic hepatitis C virus HCV infection is responsible for several severe and life threatening complications, which are worsened by HIV co-infection. Curing HCV infection allows fibrosis regression, improved clinical outcomes. In addition, individuals who have been cured are no longer contagious to other individuals, therefore widespread access to HCV treatment may contribute to the control of the HCV epidemic.
A combination of injectable pegylated-interferon with oral ribavirin is currently the recommended regimen for the treatment of hepatitis C in the setting of HIV co-infection. To determine the percentage of patients according to genotypes with sustained virological response 6 months after treatment discontinuation SVR. A total of 60 patients could be enrolled in the study: 15 HCV-HIV co-infected patients in a first part starting in August and 45 patients in a second part, depending on funding.
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It aims to collect and keep up to date information on national and state level laws criminalising the transmission of or exposure to HIV. Please use the contact us form. Advanced Search. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Print friendly Email. Users reported recruitment agencies requesting for HIV tests. Neither a medical certificate nor an HIV test result is required when entering the country.
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A total of HIV-infected women were enrolled in Bangkok, Thailand at two sites The time and date of specimen collection was recorded by study nurses.
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